Life-Sustaining Treatment and Euthanasia: This entry explores this multifaceted history from its ancient Hebrew origins to the rise of the "right to die" and "death and dying" movements after the s. The Meanings of Euthanasia All the meanings of the term euthanasia can be related to the etymology of the Greek term euthanatos: Advocates for euthanasia often call it mercy killing.
Life-Sustaining Treatment and Euthanasia: This entry explores this multifaceted history from its ancient Hebrew origins to the rise of the "right to die" and "death and dying" movements after the s.
The Meanings of Euthanasia All the meanings of the term euthanasia can be related to the etymology of the Greek term euthanatos: Advocates for euthanasia often call it mercy killing.
The current meaning is actually the second way the term was used in Western history. The Roman historian Suetonius c. Francis Bacon — appears to have been Euthanasia death and life sustaining treatment first scholar to maintain that the practice of medicine should include knowledge and skill that enable doctors to help patients to die easily and naturally.
Bacon entitled this dimension of medicine euthanasia exteriori "outward euthanasia" to distinguish it from "that euthanasia, or sweet calm dying, procured by a due preparation of the soul" in religious literature on consoling the dying Bacon, pp.
By saying that doctors should help patients "make a fair and easy passage out of life" Bacon meant that they should enable patients to die as Augustus Caesar had or like the aged Antoninus Piuswho died calmly "as though he were falling asleep" Bacon; Bryant.
This analysis of what Bacon proposed corrects the claim that he advocated doctor-induced death Fletcher; Wilson; Emanuel.
For the next two centuries the term denoted physician-aided natural dying. The replacement of this meaning by the current understanding of euthanasia occurred between and the s.
A defense of doctor-induced peaceful death was made by Samuel D. Williams inafter which heated debate ensued in Great Britain and the United States Williams, ; Vanderpool, The fact that the debate has continued accounts for the current use of the term.
The meaning of euthanasia in its original sense continued into the s, but its equation with mercy killing was so common by the turn of the century that some suggested that the original term should be replaced with the term euphoria "Euphoria vs.
Euthanasia"; Rosenberg and Aronstam. Later proponents of the duty of doctors to help patients die peacefully and naturally dropped such terminology in favor of phrases such as caring for the dying Worcester; Alvarez.
Third, during the first four decades of the twentieth century the practice of extinguishing the lives of unwanted persons also was called euthanasia. That eugenics euthanasia movement played a complex role in Nazi ideology and the legitimization of Nazi genocide Pernick.
Fourth, at times euthanasia was identified with the use of sedatives to "secure easy deaths" to the point of shortening life South Carolina Medical Association, p. Fifth, the term occasionally was associated with what is now called assisted or physician-assisted suicide Sperry,in part because some of the legislative bills sponsored by the Euthanasia Society of America were essentially assisted-suicide bills Sperry, Sixth, euthanasia became attached to the practice of withdrawing terminally ill persons from life-prolonging medical measures.
After that practice commonly was termed passive or indirect euthanasia to distinguish it from active or voluntary euthanasia: Although some authors disassociated the right to refuse life-sustaining measures from the term euthanasia Pope Pius XII ; Rynearsonthe distinction between active and passive euthanasia made as early as "Editorial: Permissive Euthanasia" had significant staying power.
An understanding of the major cultural heritages that informed and still inform the beliefs and actions of physicians sets the stage for the history of euthanasia and the sustaining of life in medical practice. Hebraic and Jewish Perspectives The Hebrew Scriptures proclaim an understanding of human life that has been immensely influential in Western history.
Humans are created by God Genesis 2: It also is not lawful wantonly to take the life of another person Exodus On the basis of this legacy, Jewish tradition requires that when life is threatened by illness or injury, it must be sustained if possible.
Because Jews were and are obligated to prolong their lives, they must not settle in communities where no physician is available. Obligations to save and extend life are drawn from Scripture: Advanced medical interventions are urged for critically ill persons as long as it seems probable that those treatments will save or prolong life Bleich.
Rabbinic debate continues over situations in which life can be prolonged for a while, but at the expense of great pain and no hope for a real cure.
Doctors who induce death to spare patients from pain are considered murderers Exodus Source for information on Life-Sustaining Treatment and Euthanasia: I. Ethical Aspects: Encyclopedia of Bioethics dictionary. Any view about the morality of forgoing life-sustaining treatment or of euthanasia will depend in large measure on the basic moral principle presupposed concerning the taking of human life.
Life and Death. Start studying Philosophy-FINAL-Euthanasia. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Leads to decisions concerning life & death made on irrelevant ground the two values that support a patient's right to accept or refuse life sustaining treatment (LST) are the same two values support voluntary.
Source for information on Life-Sustaining Treatment and Euthanasia: II. Historical Aspects: Encyclopedia of Bioethics dictionary. Life-Sustaining Treatment and Euthanasia: II. The Society of Life and Death Education clarifies the concept of euthanasia as below: Euthanasia, according to the medical profession’s definition, is the direct and .
CHAPTER 5 - THE ETHICAL DEBATE page The Role and Responsibilities of Physicians While any person can aid suicide or cause death, the current debate about assisted suicide and euthanasia generally centers on the actions of physicians.
Life-sustaining treatment includes, but is not limited to, mechanical ventilation, renal dialysis, chemotherapy, use of antibiotics, other drugs, and artificial nutrition and hydration.