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Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase.
In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted.
Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.
Age structure This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations high percentage ages 65 and over need to invest more in the health sector.
The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest. Agriculture - products This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.
Airports This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned installations.
Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. Airports - with paved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length.
For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft2 2, to 3, m 8, to 10, ft3 1, to 2, m 5, to 8, ft4 to 1, m 3, to 5, ftand 5 under m under 3, ft. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing.
Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.
The type aircraft capable of operating from a runway of a given length is dependent upon a number of factors including elevation of the runway, runway gradient, average maximum daily temperature at the airport, engine types, flap settings, and take-off weight of the aircraft.
Airports - with unpaved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length.
Appendixes This section includes Factbook-related material by topic. Area This entry includes three subfields. Area - comparative This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents.
Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census. Background This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Birth rate This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth.
It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. Broadband - fixed subscriptions This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.
Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet e. Broadcast media This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.
Budget This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.Sociology and the Study of Social Problems 1 approach to understanding the causes of social problems.
From a sociological per-spective, problems and their solutions don’t just involve individuals, but also have Unemployment threatens our sense of economic security. News, current events, information and analysis to support state legislatures. Bipartisan research on important public policy issues facing state governments.
Preliminary versions of economic research. Did Consumers Want Less Debt? Consumer Credit Demand Versus Supply in the Wake of the Financial Crisis. 1 Introduction What are the Issues?
For decades, labor economists have grappled with the problem of explaining unemployment rates at the national, regional and local levels. unemployment shows that the unemployed go through unforeseen stages of adjustment to their new status.
Understandably, Unemployment as a Complex and Serious Personal and Social Issue. ŠKOLA BIZNISA longer just an economic problem but a serious social problem. The social problems of the unemployed today.
The unemployment rate is the percentage of unemployed workers in the total labor force. The economic models utilize the unemployment rate to explain short-term fluctuations and long-term trends, such as job loss and recession.